Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): Symptoms, Treatment, Causes

Are you experiencing irregular periods and excess male hormone levels? There is a high chance that might be facing a hormonal disorder polycystic ovary syndrome. Let us understand all about PCOS.

What is PCOS?

PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome) is a hormonal condition that affects a substantial number of reproductive-age women. PCOS is characterized by irregular or extended menstrual periods, as well as elevated levels of the male hormone androgen. The ovaries may create a significant number of little fluid-filled sacs (follicles) yet fail to release eggs regularly.

The exact etiology of PCOS is unknown. Weight loss, as well as early identification and treatment, can help to reduce the risk of long-term illnesses including type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

Symptoms can be treated with medication. You might be able to conceive, but you'll probably need to take fertility drugs to do it.

PCOS causes cysts on the ovaries in certain women. It's called "polycystic" because of this. Many women with PCOS, however, do not produce cysts, therefore the name is misleading. What causes PCOS is a mystery to doctors. High amounts of male hormones, they believe, inhibit the ovaries from generating hormones and correctly developing eggs.

High testosterone levels have been associated with genes, insulin resistance, and inflammation.

The following are the most common PCOS signs and symptoms:

Some women begin to feel PCOS symptoms around the time of their first menstruation. Others discover they have SYMPTOMS OF PCOS after gaining a lot of weight or having difficulty conceiving.

  1. Irregular periods: The uterine lining does not shed every month due to a lack of ovulation. PCOS causes some women to have fewer than eight or no periods each year.
  2. Heavy bleeding: Because the uterine lining grows up over time, the periods you do have may be thicker than usual.
  3. Hair growth: Women with this condition grow hair on their faces and bodies, particularly on their backs, tummies, and chests. Hirsutism is a disorder that causes excessive hair growth on the body.
  4. Acne: Male hormones can induce breakouts on the face, chest, and upper back by making the skin oilier than usual.
  5. Gaining weight: PCOS affects up to 80% of women, with up to 80% of them being overweight or obese.
  6. Male pattern baldness: It is a type of baldness that affects men. Your scalp hair thins down and may fall off.
  7. Skin discolouration: In bodily creases such as the neck, groyne, and under the breasts, dark patches of skin can appear.
  8. Headaches: Some women experience headaches as a result of hormonal changes.

Treatment for PCOS

Infertility, hirsutism, acne, and obesity are among conditions that can be treated with PCOS. A specific PCOS treatment approach may include lifestyle modifications or medication.

  • A shift in one's lifestyle Your doctor may prescribe a low-calorie diet along With moderate physical activity. Even a minor weight decrease — say, 5% of your body weight — can help you feel better. Weight loss can aid with infertility and may increase the efficacy of PCOS medications provided by your doctor.
Prescription drugs To assist you to manage your menstrual cycle, your doctor may recommend the following:
  • Hormone-combination birth control tablets: Pills combining estrogen and progestin suppress androgen production while also controlling estrogen. Endometrial cancer, abnormal bleeding, excessive hair growth, and acne can all be reduced by regulating your hormones. Instead of taking tablets, you might use a skin patch or vaginal ring that contains a mix of estrogen and progestin.
  • The usage of progestins: If you take progestin for 10 to 14 days every one to two months, it can help control your periods and protect you against endometrial cancer. Progesterone does not prevent pregnancy or reduce androgen levels. A progestin-only minipill or a progestin-containing intrauterine device is a better alternative if you also wish to avoid pregnancy.

Causes of PCOS

  • Excess insulin: Insulin is a hormone generated by the pancreas that helps cells to use sugar as a source of energy. Your blood sugar levels may rise and your body may create more insulin if your cells grow resistant to the effects of insulin. Excess insulin can increase testosterone production, which might make ovulation difficult.
  • Inflammation at a low level: The synthesis of chemicals by white blood cells to fight infection is referred to as this phrase. Women with PCOS have a form of low-grade inflammation that leads their polycystic ovaries to create androgens, which can cause heart and blood vessel problems, according to research.
  • Genetics: Certain genes have been related to PCOS, according to research.
  • Androgen excess: Hirsutism and acne are caused by unusually high quantities of androgen produced by the ovaries.

Is PCOS a serious problem?

Women with PCOS are more likely to suffer from a variety of major health issues. Among them include type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, heart and blood vessel problems, and uterine cancer. PCOS has an impact on many women's ability to conceive (fertility).

PCOS is a hormonal imbalance that affects one in ten women of reproductive age. PCOS causes hormonal imbalances and metabolic problems in women, which can affect their general health and beauty. PCOS, a common and curable illness, can also contribute to infertility.

How to cure PCOS permanently?

Maintaining excellent sleep hygiene is critical for curing PCOS permanently.

When you don't get enough sleep, your cortisol levels might rise, which isn't good. You may manage your hormonal fluctuations to some extent by sticking to a rigorous sleep pattern. Get at least 6-8 hours of sleep to undertake PCOS treatment at home. Yes, the proverb "early to bed, early to rise" may be applied to this situation.

What is the difference between PCOD and PCOS?

PCOS is a condition in which the ovaries generate a large number of immature or partially mature eggs as a result of poor lifestyle choices, obesity, stress, or hormonal imbalance. PCOS is a metabolic disease that can cause anovulation, which is when the ovaries cease producing eggs.

Conclusion

PCOS can disrupt women's menstrual cycles and make it harder for women to get pregnant. It will also lead to unwanted hair symptoms like hair growth on the face and the body. Doctors will first suggest a Lifestyle intervention for treating PCOS and mostly they work. Weight loss can treat PCOS symptoms and can improve the chances of pregnancy. Having a good diet and exercise are the two effective ways to lose weight. If Medications don't work the other option is to go with medication. Medications are helpful in restoring a normal menstrual cycle.